What are diacritics?

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Diacritics (singular diacritic, Greek for “to distinguish”) are small strokes, points, hooks, etc., usually over, under, or in the middle of a base character, and change its pronunciation or emphasis. They serve, as their name indicates, as a distinguishing marks in connection with otherwise identically-looking characters.

Diacritics have full orthographic importance (see diacritics and the German dictionary). Omitting diacritics may cause slower flow of reading, confusion about the pronunciation, and even cause misdirection:

   Mi papá tiene 47 años. – My father is 47 years old.

   Mi papa tiene 47 anos. –  My potatoe has 47 assholes.

  

Examples of diacritics:

Acute - á

   Double acute - ő

Gravis - à

   Double gravis - ȁ

Breve - ă ḫ

    Inverted breve - ȇ a̯

Macron - ā ḇ

Cédille - ç ş

   (Allographic variant: comma - ș ņ ģ)

Circumflex - â ḓ

Haček - č a̬

    (Allographic variant: apostrophe - ť)

Horn - ơ

Ring - å ḁ

Ogonek - ą

Point - ṡ ṣ

    Point in center - ŀ

Dash - đ ǥ

Slash - ł ø

Tilde - ã ṵ

Trema - ë ï ẍ ṳ

    Umlaut - ä ö ü (visually identical with → trema, but resulted from e put above)

 

 Diacritics can also occur in combination: ǻ ǿ ǟ ǭ ȭ ȱ ȫ …

  

See also:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diacritic Wikipedia article